Exegesis of 1 Timothy 1

Write a critical, exegetical and contextual analysis of 1 Timothy 1:1-20, with special attention to the function of 1:12-17.

The author of 1 Timothy is usually believed to be the apostle Paul whom we are introduced to in the Acts of the Apostles. Internal evidence such as the opening salutation and reference to Paul’s early life seem to confirm this. Additionally a number of early church sources indicate that this Pauline authorship was generally accepted (see the writings of Origen, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Irenaues and also the extremely early references in Clement of Rome’s Epistle to the Church at Corinth).[1] This first epistle to Timothy shows a striking similarity to the epistle to Titus which is also believed to be of Pauline authorship. Others have argued that it was not Paul but someone writing as Paul (presumably after his death) as if this is what he would have written. This is usually based on comparisons of vocabulary used in this and other Pauline letters. However, Stott concludes that the most likely author is indeed Paul himself.[2]

Timothy is the immediate recipient of the letter; this is seen in 1:2 & 1:18. Unlike the letters to churches or even Philemon (where others recipients are mentioned) this is written to an individual. Timothy is known to us from Paul’s other letters and from the Acts of the Apostles. Timothy travelled extensively with Paul and often remained behind in order to help establish fledgling churches. Timothy’s signature also joins Paul’s on several of his other epistles evidencing the close relationship they had.[3]

There are hints that 1Timothy is actually intended for a wider audience.[4] However,  it is also a truly personal letter as evidenced by such things as Paul’s command to Timothy to stop drinking only water (5:23). Whatever the case the letter is to Timothy, for the good of the wider Ephesian church.[5]

Assuming a Pauline authorship the exact date of composition is impossible to determine from the evidence within the letter or indeed from a wider knowledge of the life and travels of the apostle Paul.[6] A number of scenarios have been postulated, each with varying degrees of merit, which provide a range of between 58-64 A.D. as a possible date of writing.[7]

Timothy, having been left to oversee the initial growth of the church at Ephesus, was facing the inevitable difficulty of dealing with false teachers. Here then is Paul’s attempt to train, equip and encourage Timothy in rightly ordering the Church such that it conducts itself correctly in terms of both doctrine and behaviour. A second suggested usage for the letter is it acting as a document of empowerment for Timothy as his authority was being challenged but is here confirmed by Paul and his apostolic weight.

The letter is in essence Paul’s continued training of this younger leader and could be summed up as, “ordering doctrine so that public order can be achieved.”


Exegesis

1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by command of God our Saviour and of Christ Jesus our hope, 2 To Timothy, my true child in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. [8]

The first two verses of the opening chapter act as the salutation; a standard approach for the time and in keeping with Paul’s other openings.[9] In them we find who the letter is from, ‘Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus’, and to whom it is written, ‘Timothy, my true son in the faith.’ While Paul’s letters usually carry cosignatories and are usually written to groups of Christians or churches, 1 Timothy (and the other pastorals) stand out in being very narrow in respect to both sender and recipient.[10]

Towner notes however that to simply read these opening verses as fulfilling the cultural niceties of the time breads ignorance to their fuller usefulness, setting forth as they do 1) Paul’s authority to write such a letter, 2) his intimate relationship with Timothy and 3) the dominant theme of the entire letter.[11]

Firstly, Paul is clear that his apostleship is ‘by command of God…and Christ Jesus.’ No doubt Timothy was well aware of Paul’s office and needed little in the way of reminding of this fact. Rather than simply jogging Timothy’s memory Paul is at once reminding Timothy that his (and possibly Timothy’s) calling was not through personal choice, but through God’s ordination. Paul is in essence saying, “I’m an apostle because God told me I had to be an apostle.” Paul’s intention is to encourage Timothy that what they experience as a result of obeying this command is part of God’s plan. Paul’s apostleship is more than a privilege; it involves fulfilling responsibilities ordered by God.[12]

Paul’s choice of the words ‘command of God’ rather than the ‘will of God’ used elsewhere provides a more intimate link to Paul’s calling. It is not as if Paul has stumbled into God’s plans by accident, Paul has been actively called.[13] There is the further suggestion that Paul is clarifying his apostleship in order to bolster Timothy’s own claims to authority in the Ephesian church. If anyone were to call in to question Timothy’s teaching or decisions he has a letter which in effect defers Paul’s apostolic powers to him.

Secondly, Paul does more than address the letter to Timothy; he calls him ‘my true son in the faith.’ It is unclear as to whether Paul is employing such a link because Timothy is a convert of Paul’s, although this is the suggestion of Kelly.[14] Whether or not it is taken to mean this it still conveys further information. The language is intimate, that of family relations and shows the concern and love that Paul has for Timothy. More than this it begins to establish a chain of command. Paul is described in relation to God and to Christ; Timothy is described in relation to Paul. As authority to comes to Paul from God (and Paul must serve God as an apostle) so to Timothy’s authority is derived from Paul (and Timothy must serve him as a son serves a father).[15] The recognition, especially with the use of the word ‘true’, may also act as a commendation from Paul to Timothy’s trustworthiness, again providing Timothy with a reference if his authority or orthodoxy were to be challenged.[16]

Thirdly, Paul introduces the dominant themes of the remainder of the letter. By addressing God as ‘our saviour’ and Christ Jesus as ‘our hope’ Paul begins in his first breathe to oppose the false teachers who have in part provoked the letters writing. It is neither in human knowledge that we are saved nor in ascentism that we place our hope. Instead God is sovereign in delivering His promised salvation through His agent Jesus Christ.[17] Additionally he is trying to comfort and encourage Timothy in his task of opposing these false teachers and providing him with the necessary authority with which to do it.

The traditional sender, recipient pattern is predictably followed by a greeting. More correctly Paul invokes a blessing on Timothy of ‘Grace’, God’s gift freely give, ‘peace’, with God, and ‘mercy.’ Mercy is included here where Paul does not usually include it as a result of Paul’s awareness of the situation Timothy finds himself in, a situation he will later liken to warfare (1:18).[18] Again Paul is seeking to comfort and encourage Timothy that he is not alone in his endeavours but that God is with him.

Paul moves on quickly from this salutation to establish the task assigned to Timothy which requires such encouragement and comfort (1:3-11).

3 As I urged you when I was going to Macedonia, remain at Ephesus so that you may charge certain persons not to teach any different doctrine, 4 nor to devote themselves to myths and endless genealogies, which promote speculations rather than the stewardship from God that is by faith. 5 The aim of our charge is love that issues from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith. 6 Certain persons, by swerving from these, have wandered away into vain discussion,7 desiring to be teachers of the law, without understanding either what they are saying or the things about which they make confident assertions.

In his other letters Paul often moves onto a prayer of thanksgiving to God for an aspect of what He has done for the recipient. The fact that Paul omits this is an indication of the urgency with which he writes.

Timothy is to ‘remain at Ephesus’ as it was considered to be a city of great strategic value to the Gospel, being Asia Minors principal city from which much communication radiated. Paul’s command also suggests that Timothy was tempted to leave due to the struggles he was facing.[19]

‘So that you may charge certain persons not to teach any different doctrine.’ Evidently there are false teachers who have risen up in Ephesus whose teaching is different to some accepted standard doctrine that is taught by the apostles. This is a concern not specific to Ephesus but one Paul writes against in almost all his letters (as do the other epistle writers of the New Testament) and is something that has plagued the church throughout history .

The content of the false teaching (or different doctrine) is not clearly defined and only clues to its exact nature are provided. Verse 4 is an example where Paul refers rather generally to ‘myths and endless genealogies.’[20] Perhaps Paul is being intentionally vague as while his immediate concern is no doubt a specific group of false teachers with a specific ‘different doctrine’, he is also concerned with equipping Timothy for a lifetime of ministry amongst struggling churches and wishes to teach him how to deal with all false teachers. Johnson (amongst others) suggests that Paul could be referring to either a Jewish heresy or to some pre-Gnostic doctrines. As Paul goes on to describe these false teachers as ‘desiring to be teachers of the law’ it seems more likely that the error is more Jewish than Gnostic. However the evidence for either is partial at best and neither is considered necessary.[21]

The content is more clearly defined in terms of the consequences that it has on the church and those that involve themselves with it. It ‘promotes speculations rather than the stewardship from God that is by faith.’ Not only is the teaching different to the apostles doctrine it produces different fruit, speculation rather than careful stewardship of what God has given His people. The false teachers are said to be involved in nothing more than ‘vain discussion.’

All this is opposed to what Paul would have for the Christians in Ephesus (the outworking of sound doctrine), ‘love that issues from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith.’ If Paul’s initial aim is to prevent error in the church his grander aim is far less impersonal, it is the promotion of love amongst the brothers and sisters.[22] This is in direct contrast to the vanity of the false teachers and is an outworking of having a pure heart, good conscience and sincere faith.[23] All these are internal qualities that a believer should have and if even a single one is lacking real love cannot be displayed.[24] Paul’s description of the heretics as having ‘swerved from these’ suggests that they are from within the church and were once genuine believers.

Paul then not only undermines their teaching by calling it different and undermines the result of their teaching by contrasting the positive effects of true doctrine with the negative effects of the false doctrine, but then also undermines these false teachers ability to even teach saying as he does that they are ‘desiring to be teachers of the law, without understanding either what they are saying or the things about which they make confident assertions.’ In essence Paul is saying that those that would be teachers must first be taught. They are at present incapable of actually fulfilling the role they desire. They claim authority that they are not due, unlike Paul who has already successfully laid out his credentials.[25]

Paul then moves on to show the right usage of the law as a case study for contrasting how the false teachers teach and how sound doctrine should be explained (1:8-11).

8 Now we know that the law is good, if one uses it lawfully, 9 understanding this, that the law is not laid down for the just but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for those who strike their fathers and mothers, for murderers, 10 the sexually immoral, men who practice homosexuality, enslavers, liars, perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine, 11 in accordance with the gospel of the glory of the blessed God with which I have been entrusted.

Two things should be noted when reading this section on the law. Firstly, Paul in saying that this is the correct way to use the law is implying that the false teachers are doing the exact opposite. If Paul, Timothy and all other sound teachers ‘know that the law is good’ and understand that it ‘is not laid down for the just but for the lawless,’ it can be understood from this that the false teachers were using it in such a way as to justify themselves and others. Secondly, it should be noticed that by ending his list as he does with the statement, ‘and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine.’ Paul is implying that the doctrine of the false teachers is in some way actually promoting this scandalous behaviour, unlike sound doctrines which promotes love for one another. The effect of this is to give the sense that a believer’s doctrine is intrinsically linked to their behaviour.[26]

Paul says that the purpose of the law is not is not to approve righteous folk, but to condemn and provoke repentance amongst the ungodly.[27] This use of the law conforms to ‘the gospel of the glory of the blessed God.’ That is to say that it is the fulfilment that God has intended for the law, it points people to their need for a saviour in Christ Jesus.

The list of persons whom the law is for is interesting and sheds light on which ‘law’ Paul is dealing with. The list almost follows the Decalogue with the first half, ‘for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane,’ summing up those who have broken the first four commands and the second half, ‘those who strike their fathers and mothers, for murderers, the sexually immoral, men who practice homosexuality, enslavers, liars, perjurers,’ providing the most extreme examples of persons who have broken the remaining six.[28] However Paul is still sufficiently vague in his usage of the term ‘law’ as to intend it to be read in its broadest sense including the whole Old Testament and moral law.[29]

This section on the law cannot be fully appreciated until the next section is understood. Paul’s thanksgiving for his own salvation is presented as achieving exactly what the law cannot (1:12-17). Rather than offering a prayer of thanks to Christ for what he has done in others, here Paul offers a prayer to Christ for what he has done to him.[30]

12 I thank him who has given me strength, Christ Jesus our Lord, because he judged me faithful, appointing me to his service, 13 though formerly I was a blasphemer, persecutor, and insolent opponent. But I received mercy because I had acted ignorantly in unbelief, 14 and the grace of our Lord overflowed for me with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus. 15 The saying is trustworthy and deserving of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am the foremost. 16 But I received mercy for this reason, that in me, as the foremost, Jesus Christ might display his perfect patience as an example to those who were to believe in him for eternal life. 17 To the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory forever and ever. Amen.

The real subject of this thanksgiving is ‘Christ Jesus our Lord.’[31] Who is at all points the one who is active. Paul says that it is Christ was has ‘given me strength…judged me faithful, appointing me to his service.’ It is not merely the teaching of sound doctrine that is required but the genuine reception of ‘mercy’ and ‘grace from Jesus’ that is needed. Paul’s thanks are for his “experience of God’s superabundant grace.”[32]

In order to reinforce this point Paul introduces us to his first trustworthy saying.[33] ‘Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners.’ God’s grace and mercy are displayed and allocated through the coming of Jesus into human history and his death for unworthy people.

At no point has Paul been playing down his own previous sinfulness, quite the opposite in fact. Paul’s language in describing his former life is almost as strong as the language used in his list of people for whom the law was intended and the false teachers themselves. He ‘was a blasphemer, persecutor, and insolent opponent.’ His blaspheme was his denial of Christ and his encouraging others to do likewise.[34] While he was sincere in his former, pharisaical ways, he was acting ‘ignorantly in unbelief.’ He is also keenly aware that of the sinners that Christ came into the world to save he was the worst, ‘the foremost.’ This is not literal but shows that a genuine believer is far more aware of their own sinfulness than the sinfulness of those around them.

Paul is keen to emphasis his former life in order to demonstrate the utter power required to do what God has done in him.[35] Having taken him from being a ‘persecutor, and insolent opponent’ to overflowing in ‘faith and love that are in Christ Jesus.’ And this power is not reserved for Paul alone, rather he sees his own experience of God’s grace and mercy as a pattern or template, that ‘Jesus Christ might display his perfect patience…to those who were to believe in him for eternal life.’ Paul’s expectation is that others will follow suit, that sinners will be made aware of their guilt (by the law) and be transformed in their in most being and their external actions (by Christ).

The ‘faith and love’ that Paul so desired in verse 5 is now clarified as ‘faith and love in Christ Jesus.’ That is faith in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus and a love that is informed by this. Proper faith should have Jesus as its object, content and source.[36]

Having stated such a wonderful truth Paul cannot hold back and finishes this section with a doxology, a word of praise to the one who has worked the miracle he has just been describing. ‘To the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory forever and ever. Amen.’ This doxology is almost certainly known by others and the ‘amen’ provides Timothy an opportunity to stop and agree with everything that has been written.[37]

Paul, having offered his own example as a proper usage of the law and a contrast to the false teachers, now closes the chapter by returning to that initial charge that Timothy is to oppose them (1:18-20).

18 This charge I entrust to you, Timothy, my child, in accordance with the prophecies previously made about you, that by them you may wage the good warfare,19 holding faith and a good conscience. By rejecting this, some have made shipwreck of their faith, 20 among whom are Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I have handed over to Satan that they may learn not to blaspheme.

The charge is the same one issued in verse 3 only here it is expressed in the more military terms of ‘waging the good warfare.’ Such language undermines any notion that the charge is a simple one and introduces the possibility that casualties may be incurred (as we shall see with Hymenaeus and Alexander).

Timothy is instructed to fulfil the charge ‘in accordance with the prophecies previously made about you.’ Again Paul is referring to some previous events in order to provide Timothy with some encouragement in the face of a task which is likened to war. The nature of the prophecies or when they were given is not clear, however a further reference to the laying on of hands later in chapter 4 suggests it was something to do with Timothy’s ordination which was conducted in much the same vain as Paul’s, that account of which is found in Acts 13:1-3.[38] In any case Timothy is aware of their content and Paul’s reference to them was intended to remind Timothy that his completion of ‘this charge,’ is in keeping with God’s plan for his life.[39]

Paul concludes the chapter with a negative example of what might become of Timothy and the Ephesian church if he were not to fulfil his duty. ‘By rejecting this,’ the Christian call to serve the Gospel, ‘some have made a shipwreck of their faith.’ The rejection suggests that what Paul is describing is a wilful disregard for the truth, an intentional turning away from the Gospel. This is as opposed to the ‘ignorance’ in which Paul committed his sins in his former life. The result is a faith that is shipwrecked, in total ruin.[40] Turning ones back on sound doctrine is a decision that does not merely present a setback but is effectively the end of true faith.

In order to highlight this Paul gives the example of ‘Hymenaeus and Alexander,’ whose rejection of true doctrine in favour of a different doctrine is described as blasphemy. Here we get the final glimpse of the severity with which this issue needs to be dealt. Paul has ‘handed them over to Satan’ in much the same way as he instructed the Corinthian church to deal with the incestuous man (1 Corinthians 5). This is the strongest form of church discipline possible. The implication of such excommunication was to deny them the benefits of being part of the community of grace. The benefits were seen as more than physical provision and mutual care but also the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit amongst the church.[41] The desired result of course was restoration, ‘that they may learn not to blaspheme.’

This final negative example serves as a warning to Timothy if all the positive encouragements are insufficient to prompt action.


Further Reference to the function of verses 12-17

At first glance Paul’s thanksgiving for his own experience may appear to be an unnecessary digression. However on closer investigation it is found to not only further his general argument but is vital component of it, without which the chapter would be incomplete.[42]

Specifically, in these five verses, Paul portrays himself as a faithful teacher in direct contrast with the false teachers he is dealing with. Verse 11 acts as a transitional statement between the false teachers and Paul, the faithful teacher, pointing out that he has been entrusted with the Gospel. This statement could have been left as it was, sufficient for Timothy to understand that they are to be Gospel men, but Paul wishes to demonstrate the power of God to transform a sinner like him in contrast with the impotence of ‘vain discussion’ which only promotes speculation. Paul’s call is more than a simple entrusting with the Gospel; it is in itself an illustration of the Gospel.[43]

Paul first casts himself in a similar light to that which he has cast the heretics, declaring his prior lack of faith and his blasphemy. Timothy is reminded that the sorts of people that he must now wage war with are the sorts of people that Paul himself once was.[44]

Paul then goes on to demonstrate how it is God’s grace alone that has provided him with the qualities that he so eagerly desires to be displayed in the church; faith, love, a good conscience and pure heart. What changed Paul? What took him from this helpless state to eternal life? Nothing less than the grace, mercy and patience of God.[45] Paul is showing Timothy how there is hope even in the discouraging situation he finds himself in. Paul might have written, “If God can do that to me, chief amongst sinners, there’s hope yet!”

Paul also develops another great theme of the letter; that real Christians are transformed inside and out. Not only are their beliefs changed (for Paul from unbelief to faith in Christ) but their external lives are changed to (for Paul from a persecutor of the Church to a lover of the Church). Timothy is intended to seek similar transformation amongst the church, people cleansed by God, directed by His word and producing the visible fruit of love.[46]

Finally, we see this section performing the function which the entire first chapter of the epistle is designed for, to encourage Timothy. Paul isn’t simply laying out a template for future action, but providing a firm intellectual and emotional foundation on which Timothy can be motivated to continue thework. From the opening salutation which reminds Timothy of God’s sovereignty to the closing comments about fulfilling prophecies, Paul is at every turn encouraging Timothy to stay and fight rather than fleeing.[47]

By constantly pointing to God’s sovereignty in his own conversion, Paul is reminding Timothy that there is hope as long as he depends on God. The key verse of this short section, ‘But I received mercy for this reason, that in me, as the foremost, Jesus Christ might display his perfect patience as an example to those who were to believe in him for eternal life.’ reinforces this. Not only does it provide the pattern Timothy needs, it also provides hope that change is not dependent on his own strength. The concluding doxology also confirms this notion of encouraging Timothy, pointing him as he does to the transcendent qualities that God alone possess.

Conclusion

The first chapter of the apostle Paul’s epistle to Timothy performs several functions. Firstly, it reminds Timothy to oppose false teaching and gives a valuable insight into discerning it. False teaching at its heart is divisive, promoting speculation and vanity rather than love and faith. False teachers seek positions within the church that they are not qualified to hold and the result is a shipwreck of their own faith and the faith of those they are allowed to influence.

Secondly, it encourages Timothy that although his opposing the heretics will be like going into battle, God is both with Him and the one who will ultimately has the power to bring about change. Timothy is to demolish falsehood and establish truth not through his own strength or by his own decision, but in keeping with God’s call for his life and through the transforming gospel of grace.

Finally, it elaborates Paul’s theology that doctrine has an impact on the behaviour of the believer. It teaches Timothy that a divergence from God’s glorious gospel brings about a shipwrecking of the faith of those who teach falsehoods and those they influence.

All three of these functions have relevance for today’s church as the need to oppose false teachers has not disappeared, neither has the need to be encouraged in this difficult task by the sovereignty of God. Indeed churches still need to grasp the truth that it’s genuine spiritual state is measured in terms of both the doctrines it affirms and outworking of these doctrines in lives of love for one another.


[1]Mark.A. Copeland, “The First Epistle to Timothy: Introduction,” n.p. [cited 7/10/2010]. Online: http://www.ccel.org/contrib/exec_outlines/1ti/1ti_00.htm.

[2]John.R.W Stott, The Message of 1 Timothy & Titus (Leicester: IVP, 1996), 21-34.

[3]William Hendriksen, 1&2 Timothy and Titus (London: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1957), 33-36.

[4]For example the plural nature of the farewell in 6:21, “Grace be with you all.”

[5]D.A. Carson, Douglas.J. Moo, and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Leicster: Apollos, 1992), 374.

[6]However a pseudonymous origin would suggest a much later date as it would have to have been after Paul’s death in order to not be immediately refuted.

[7]Copeland, “First Epistle Introduction,” n.p.

[8]Scripture references are from the English Standard Version.

[9]Philip.H. Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus (Leicester: IVP, 1994), 39.

[10]Jouette.M. Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus (Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon Press, 1996), 35.

[11]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 40.

[12]J.N.D. Kelly, The Pastoral Epistles (London: Adams & Charles Black, 1963), 40.

[13]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 36.

[14]Kelly, Pastoral Epistles, 40.

[15]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 36.

[16]Kelly, Pastoral Epistles, 40.

[17]L.T. Johnson, The First and Second Letters to Timothy (N.Y.: Doubleday, 2001), 160.

[18]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 41.

[19]Kelly, Pastoral Epistles, 40.

[20]A similarly vague description is given to Titus in the epistle bearing his name.

[21]Johnson, 1st & 2nd Letters to Timothy, 161.

[22]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 46.

[23]Johnson, 1st & 2nd Letters to Timothy, 175.

[24]Kelly, Pastoral Epistles, 46.

[25]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 48.

[26]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 42.

[27]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 50.

[28]Kelly, Pastoral Epistles, 50.

[29]Johnson, 1st & 2nd Letters to Timothy, 176.

[30]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 42.

[31]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 44.

[32]Kelly, Pastoral Epistles, 52.

[33]Howard.I. Marshall, The Pastoral Epistles (Edinburgh: T&T Clarck, 1999), 397.

[34]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 54.

[35]Marshall, Pastoral Epistles, 393.

[36]Marshall, Pastoral Epistles, 396.

[37]Kelly, Pastoral Epistles, 56.

[38]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 57.

[39]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 45.

[40]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 59.

[41]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 47.

[42]Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles (2d ed.; Leicester: IVP, 1990), 73.

[43]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 42.

[44]Bassler, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, 43.

[45]Johnson, 1st & 2nd Letters to Timothy, 183.

[46]Towner, 1-2 Timothy and Titus, 48.

[47]Recall that in verse 3 Paul’s encouragement for Timothy to remain in Ephesus may suggest that he was on the verge of giving up and leaving.

 

Bibliography

Bassler, Jouette.M. 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus. Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon Press, 1996.

Carson, D.A., Douglas.J. Moo, and Leon Morris. An Introduction to the New Testament. Leicster: Apollos, 1992.

Copeland, Mark.A. “The First Epistle to Timothy: Introduction.” No pages. Cited 7/10/2010. Online: http://www.ccel.org/contrib/exec_outlines/1ti/1ti_00.htm.

Guthrie, Donald. The Pastoral Epistles. 2d ed. Leicester: IVP, 1990.

Hendriksen, William. 1&2 Timothy and Titus. London: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1957.

Johnson, L.T. The First and Second Letters to Timothy. N.Y.: Doubleday, 2001.

Kelly, J.N.D. The Pastoral Epistles. London: Adams & Charles Black, 1963.

Marshall, Howard.I. The Pastoral Epistles. Edinburgh: T&T Clarck, 1999.

Stott, John.R.W. The Message of 1 Timothy & Titus. Leicester: IVP, 1996.

Towner, Philip.H. 1-2 Timothy and Titus. Leicester: IVP, 1994.

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